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for a decisive year

The Conference of the Parties (COP27) marks 30 years of international cooperation to fight climate change and preserve the environment. COP27 is a direct descendent of the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit and will take place in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, from 6 to 18 November this year.

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Esperança em ano decisivo

Given the worldwide economic, energy and social uncertainty, the eyes of millions of people, organisations and companies will be on the Conference of the Parties this year, and EDP will also be there as a close observer. Two hundred countries will have the opportunity at COP27 to reaffirm the sustainability of the planet as the focus of their efforts. They will be able to invest decisively in changing the energy paradigm to reduce pollution, limit the increase in global temperature and, thereby, protect present and future lives.

Explore COP27 and watch the sessions

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Esperança em ano decisivo

Africa on the path to sustainability

COP27 in Egypt marks the long-awaited return of the Conference to Africa. The continent is home to some of the countries and communities that suffer the most from climate change, but also have the smallest impact on the ecological footprint of humanity and are least able to invest in the energy transition. In Glasgow, COP26 particularly focussed on financing funds to support these countries and it is the responsibility of COP27 to confirm that the promises of 40 billion dollars per year from 2025 will be achieved, and that this value is sufficient.

Many governments, institutions and companies work constantly to improve living conditions and access to energy in different regions, to strengthen the resilience of communities. This is true of EDP, which in 2018 launched the Access to Energy Fund (A2E), directed specifically at Africa. In the 2022 edition, the available budget was doubled to one million euros.

Learn more about the A2E Fund

EDP and COP: Common priorities

Fighting for sustainability and for the energy transition is a daily mission at EDP, in all the geographies. EDP will be present at COP not just to follow events, but to demonstrates its commitment to the planet and to raising awareness of all agents in society for the necessary changes. The four pillars of COP – Mitigation, Adaptation, Finance and Collaboration – also guide our strategy at all times.

Floating solar and offshore wind power diversify the production of renewable energy, which helps to reduce climate change. The programmes EDP participates in, such as POCITYF in historic centres and the Micro-Grid on the island of Pulau Ubin, ensure that renewables are spreading everywhere.
The commitments of large corporations are important as they have a greater capacity for innovation, access to financial capital, and above all, they are largely responsible for greenhouse gas emissions. But attributing solutions to companies can be a mistake.”

Dominic Schmal, ESG Director EDP Brazil
All EDP projects, infrastructure or decisions follow a rigorous adaptation plan, based on the different IPCC climate change scenarios. Climate risks and challenges are part of a questionnaire adapted to all the geographies, which is constantly updated.
When we are able to pinpoint what we can do to better resist the effects of climate change and bring it to fruition, we are not fighting the root of the problem but alleviating its symptoms, making its effects less damaging to us."

Yolanda Fernandez Montes, Environment, Sustainability, Innovation and Climate Change Director at EDP Spain
The EDP A2E Fund has invested EUR 1.5 million in 20 projects in 7 African countries over its three editions, delivering renewables and accelerating development where it is most needed. By 2030, EDP will have invested EUR 300 million in initiatives with social impact.
More than 700 million people around the world live without access to electricity. Electrification and renewable energy, as engines for decarbonisation and the sustainability of the planet, can make a decisive contribution to addressing this serious problem.”

Martim Salgado, EDP Social Impact Coordinator
EDP will be 100% green by 2030 and works so that sustainability is always an overarching goal. Our commitment to the planet is also shown in dozens of international partnerships, from the UN to sector associations, from decarbonisation to new energy sources, such as hydrogen.
Tackling climate change is one of Humanity’s most important global challenges of all times, we have a huge challenge ahead - we will need to change more in this critical decade than we ever did and we urgently need to accelerate.”

Madalena Calle Lucas, Advisor for Sustainability Corporate affairs at EDP
Esperança em ano decisivo

EDP's presence at COP27

november 9th 
Financing the green (r)evolution - addressing the challenges for technological innovation
09:30-10:30am GTM +2
with Rafael Sólis (EDPR)
Benelux Pavilion
november 10th 
We Mean Business Coalition Partners' Meeting + Reception
04:30-07:00pm GTM +2
with Miguel Viana (SUST)
Business Pavilion
november 11th 
Energia, Indústria, Agro e Investimentos Verdes
10:00-10:45am GTM +2
with Miguel Viana (SUST)
Business Pavilion

The Global Alliance for Sustainable Energy
02:00-03:30pm GTM +2
with Miguel Viana (SUST)
Wind and Solar Pavilion
november 14th 
24/7 Carbon-Free Energy Compact - Accelerating Decarbonization of the World's Electricity Grids
11:45-12:15 GTM +2
with Miguel Setas
SDG7 Pavilion (Blue Zone, Area C)
november 15th 
Green Growth Partnership Roundtable, COP27
10:15-10:45 GTM +2
with Miguel Setas
Business Pavilion (Blue Zone – Area C)

Le rôle de l'hydro-électricité dans la lutte contre les changements climatiques
10:30–11:30 GTM +2
with Joana Freitas
Francophonie pavilion (Blue Zone)
Watch live here (registration required)

Creating Energy Security for All: Technology & Policy Opportunities
11:30-12:30 GTM +2
with Miguel Setas
UNFCCC Pavilion (Blue Zone – Area D)
Watch live here

Energy Panel Discussion: Repower Europe with Kadri Simson Energy European Commissioner
01:00-02:00pm GTM +2
with Miguel Setas
Sweden Pavilion (Blue Zone)
Watch live here (registration required)

Nature Conservancy x Eurelectric – Power plant - Accelerating equitable renewable energies globally
01:00-01:40pm GTM +2
with Joana Freitas
Nature Zone Pavilion

The Journey from Coal to Clean: A World Tour
02:00-02:40pm GTM +2
with Joana Freitas
Climate Action Hub (Blue Zone)

Accelerating a Just Transition in the Energy and Food Systems
03:00-04:00pm GTM +2
with Miguel Setas
Business Pavilion-Auditorium B (Blue Zone)
Watch live here
november 16th 
Hydroélectricité et résilience aux changements climatiques: deux outils pour mieux comprendre
01:30-02:30pm GTM +2
with Joana Freitas
Francophonie pavilion (Blue Zone)
Watch this year's recap here

The word to the... planet

The different ways of tackling climate change and the different challenges that the planet faces are addressed at COP27 over eight days, each on a theme, from Agriculture to Water, from Finance to Youth. We have gathered the views of specialists from EDP, from public institutions, from NGOs, from civil society and from scientific research. What do they expect from COP27? Is change within our reach?

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Wael El-Naggar
 - Amb. of Egypt in Portugal

The COP27 has a very important challenge, I think it's not only the climate change challenge that we have been all witnessing as individuals, in the last few months, or things like the floods in Pakistan, that reflect the climate change very much, but again, the geopolitical challenge.

What Egypt is looking for in this COP 27 is a further commitment for the implementation, not only the commitment that we, all countries, have been commited to in Glasgow 26 or others, but now we need to move to implementation.

We need to create success stories, that are very important to be carried on furthermore.

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Marta Louro
 - EDP A2E Fund

Discussing climate finance at COP27 is critical to achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement. Investment in clean energy needs to increase significantly, with a special focus on renewables and energy efficiency. International public funding, dedicated to energy projects in developing countries, is still insufficient. Governments and international donors play key roles for just and inclusive energy transitions.

But there needs to be an openness for private investment, with lower risk, so that more climate solutions and higher investment values can be made available in these countries. In addition to the financial commitments that will be made, it is necessary to define priorities, facilitating instruments and mechanisms to monitor these investments.

It is also important that investment is targeted at policies and capacity building so that there is a truly holistic approach to the existing challenges and that we reach the goal of clean and affordable energy for all.

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Serena Langiano
Science + Youth and Future Generations

Mitigation actions to fight global warming and extreme weather events, naturally result from scientific principles. Science is essential to lead the need for action, being fundamental in shaping new solutions to faze out fossil fuel based technologies.

Even though renewables appear now as the way for decarbonization, it is important that this always stays central, so that students learn about engineering, chemistry and technology as the foundation of innovation. The role of COP today is of the utmost importance. Given the current circumstances, the call for significant shifts in the way we behave, COP has the mission of bringing together global leaders to work on global solutions. This cannot be separated from science.

COP is the opportunity to set the roadmap to promote science through the implementation of concrete initiatives, designed to preserve the environment by accelerating the faze out of coal, fostering renewables and speeding up the switch to sustainable mobility.

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Shruthi Nandakumar
 - EDP Trainee
Science + Youth and Future Generations

The climate crisis relieves no space to disregard any voices, especially of those who will have to live through the consequences of these decisions taken today. The sense of urgency that the youth actors are driving needs to reach those that can act on it on a personal level, which this platform will provide.

he economies, jobs, societies, even the way we perceive nature... in fact, our world culture is changing, and will continue to change, in response to the challenges that we see.

That is what the COP27 young and future generations table will give us: a glimpse of how our world will look. And how the life saving directives put into force today, will enable that tomorrow. And when I mean saving lives, I mean all life.

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María Mendiluce
 - We Mean Business Coalition

To keep people safe, and business afloat, every fraction of the degree of heating matters.

Science shows us the perils of going beyond 1,5º Celsius of global warming.

They grow in frequency of climate related extreme weather, such as heat waves, floods, droughts, showthe urgency of the climate crisis.

This is why governments and businesses must go all in on climate action to reduce emissions.

At COP27, in Egypt, at the minimum, countries must raise the ambition of their national targets, in line withhaving global emissions by 2030.

And, crucially, translate these targets into clear policies which deliver action and deliver emission cuts.

And businesses will be critical to this decarbonization effect. They have real world expertise, learnings andbest practices to share.

And are already setting the solutions that need policy support to be effective at scale.

Let's go all in for 2030, and all in for clean energy.There is no time to waste.

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Henrique Sánchez
 - President UVE

COP27, the United Nations Conference of the Parties, will take place from 6 to 18 November 2022 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.

Humanity faces a real threat to its own existence.

We are not talking about saving planet Earth, because the planet will survive any catastrophe. We are talking, very simply, about preventing the planet from losing the set of conditions required for the existence of the human race.

This existential threat means we are all facing an emergency where we are all invited to participate actively, to accelerate the decarbonisation of the economies of all countries.

We have been warned by the world scientific community.

The latest warning, from a group of scientists led by researchers at the University of Oregon, is that 16 of the 35 vital signs of planet Earth, which are used to evaluate climate change, have reached new record levels.

An extremely serious red light is that only 24 of the 193 countries that have signed the Paris Agreement, approved at COP21 in 2015, have presented plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

This year, in Sharm el-Sheikh, during COP27, it is urgent to adopt real measures to combat climate change and for the decarbonisation of the economies of all countries.

It falls to us, in our daily lives, in the choices we make and in the pressure we apply to national governments, to accelerate the decarbonisation of the world economy.

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Carlos de Luna
 - EDP Renewables

This year's COP27 is marked by the energy crisis in Europe and the war between Ukraine and Russia.

Some countries in Europe have reactivated their coal power plants, which had already been shut down, due to the lack of gas supplies from Russia.

It is clear that prospects are not the best. This will probably put at risk the agreements reached at previous summits, as far as decarbonisation is concerned.

For this reason it is very important that everyone redoubles their efforts to foster the energy transition and seek solutions in the current context, and persevere in the fight against climate change.

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Miguel Setas
 - Executive Board Member EDP

COP26 was a COP focused on climate, this is going to be a COP with a much more integrated vision - climate, nature, society. It was a COP focused on commitments, this will be a COP focused on delivery.

And so, a new paradigm, new ambitions, new context, a very, very critical context of a geostrategic, geopolitical crisis, of a global crisis, with worsening inflation, with Europe having an energy crisis. So the world context is a context of great concern.

This crisis must not be a blockage to the transformations that we need, this crisis has to be an opportunity, and it has to be seen as a chance, not for us to retreat but to move forward and to invest, as we are doing, in renewable energies, in the energy transition, in new technologies that have a more advantageous carbon footprint and that do not contribute or that avoid the so-called global warming.

I think that the great challenge is to make this happen, everything that these, all this change that is intended for a fair transition, an accelerated transition, a bet on new forms of energy, a reinvention of the model of society, I think that this is truly structural for all of us, isn't it, so it changes our lives.

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João Soutinho
 - Biologist and President of Verde
Adaption + Agriculture and Food Systems

Hello. My name is João Gonçalo Soutinho. I am a biologist and work in the integrated conservation of nature in territories highly influenced by humans.

This influence comes from us using territory for different purposes, whether it is for agriculture, for extracting products or even as land on which to live.

Even in these places, biodiversity occurs and exists and we must adapt and be able to think about how the ecosystem services that support the existence of biodiversity in these spaces can actually co-exist.

It is important that we think that, to extract a product and for it to grow in a healthy and sustainable way, it is necessary to have natural chains, the ecological relationships that always exist and that have been disappearing over the years, and that humans, in taking their daily decisions about managing the land, must increasingly have the ability to weigh these arguments and use the land more effectively, but also without destroying the relationships, which would ultimately diminish our quality of life and our ability to produce food.

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Carlos del Río Casado
 - Director of Climate Change EDP Spain
Adaption + Agriculture and Food Systems

When we talk about climate change, we usually associate it with the idea of reduced emissions and mitigation.

But now that we know that we have to honour our emission reduction commitments because we are not on target, that little brother that adaptation has always been has to grow up and has to make its place.

As one with those reduction targets set, we know that the damaging effects of climate change are likely to be felt for decades to come.

Therefore, COP27 needs to clearly define the mechanism that will determine the whole scope of adaptation, especially in terms of loss & damage.

We should come out of COP27 with clear ideas on how these financial resources are to be avoided so that especially the most underprivileged countries, which happen to be those most affected by climate change, can implement measures to limit the harmful effects of climate change.

I personally believe that if we respond at COP27 to this whole issue of financial provision and funding to deal with adaptation, the conference will be a real success.

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Sara Abreu
 - Sustainability Specialist na EDP
Adaption + Agriculture and Food Systems


Why is it important for COP to address the theme of Adaptation, Agriculture and Food Systems?

There are growing concerns about feeding the world and the solutions have not been implemented with a sustained vision and one that has taken concerns about climate change into account.

The abusive use of fossil fuels and synthetic fertilisers has degraded our soils and natural resources.

COP27 will put the alternatives to agriculture and for the food system as whole on the table, which will consequently help with climate, biodiversity, health and other issues.

It is an opportunity to define strategies, adapted to the reality of each nation, and focus on solutions that are feasible, so that we can come back into balance with nature.

So, can we expect to leave the COP with decisions on this matter?

Favourable decisions that focus on these problems require innovation in the sector and implementation and expansion of regenerative agricultural practices.

More and better support, so as to improve the technical conditions without the need to expand the existing agricultural area, empowering not only our large cooperatives, but transversally with measures adapted to all types of actors.

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Samanta Souza
 - Sustainability and Environmental Management Specialist, EDP

In the global context in which we live, it is extremely important that the discussions at COP27 are increasingly integrated with social issues, above all for those groups that are most affected by climate change.

The issues connected to gender diversity have been shown to be an important focus for action for different reasons.

Firstly, because climate change disproportionately affects girls and women in situations of greater risk.

On the other hand, there is an enormous gap in the representation of women in decision-making spaces, particularly as it is they who will be so strongly affected.

The women participate in and in many cases lead actions addressing the climate crisis, particularly when we consider issues such as food security and conservation of traditional knowledge of biodiversity.

Accordingly, it is hoped that at this COP the mechanisms for including women in the construction of plans for combating the climate crisis will be strengthened and more women will be able to share their perspectives and to collaborate with this agenda.

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João Estanqueiro
 - People Experience EDP

The climate crisis is not only an environmental crisis.

The effects of the climate crisis also exacerbate social, political and economic tensions, in fragile, vulnerable and conflict environments.

They affect the health, well-being and security of people around the world, particularly some of the most vulnerable populations in these environments, such as girls and women.

A clear example of this are women in developing countries, countries that are also the most affected by natural disasters.

These women are the first vulnerable group, along with their households, to feel the effects of climate change, for example on their livelihoods and agriculture.

Inherently, gender equality, and more specifically women's socio-economic development, is also a way of acting on climate regeneration.

And it is for this very reason that EDP has assumed in its business plan the commitment to increase gender equality internally, tangible with the goal of reaching 30% of women in leadership positions in our workforce.

This COP27 is critical to recognise that it is time to have courage and act.

Firstly, to ensure gender equality in the definition, development and decision making, of measures that directly impact the lives of communities.

And secondly and lastly, by creating funding conditions, as well as defining gender sensitive budgets, which will consequently not only improve living conditions, but also fund projects of community utility.

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Gabriel Nebreda Molinero
 - Director de Energia Distribuída da EDP Solar

One of the most important goals or responsibilities of the global community today, is to generate cheaper, cleaner and more local energy.

And it's not anymore the sole responsibility of governments and big companies, because today consumers have the means to contribute to this change of energy powerline.

With solar distributed generation, with local batteries, with electric vehicles, heat pumps, consumers have the leverage to accelerate the energy transition.

What can we do to accelerate this consciousness of the end consumers? What can we do to accelerate the energy transition through the families and through the small companies?

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João Pedro Gouveia
 - Researcher and lecturer at Nova University Lisbon

My name is João Pedro Gouveia. I am a researcher and guest lecturer at Nova University Lisbon.

The message I would like to share is that the political changes and the technological progress since the Paris Agreement of 2015 have reduced the projected temperature increase.

However, we still have a long way to go to limit average global warming to the one and a half degrees set in the Agreement.

To do so, we need to be more ambitious, to invest more in energy systems, on the supply and the demand sides, and in grids, to better integrate renewable energy, to look at existing regulations and improve them, creating opportunities to advance the much-needed energy revolution and not delay it further.

At the same time, we need to organise appropriate financing mechanisms for this transition.

It appears to me that in this transformation, which is so urgent due to the energy crisis and energy prices, but above all because of the climate crisis that must be addressed, it is important to pay attention to integrating all agents and consumers, understanding how to ensure that social inequality does not increase and how to organise a just transition, inclusive of all.

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Filipa Ricciardi
 - Executive Vice President Clients Solutions, Sunseap, EDP Renováveis

Decarbonization is the central piece of the energy transition. And as such, it is absolutely fundamental that is heavily addressed during COP, as it as been over the years.

I believe that a positive outcome from the COP this year, is to show continued commitment to climate action, and the Paris Agreement.

With countries announcing their intention to strengthen their contributions and respective targets, the current energy context only comes to reemphasize the need to accelerate renewables.

Obviously setting goals is easy, but it needs to be coupled with clear plans to achieve this.

Energy security as been a theme throughout, particularly in Europe.

And while it is important to have reliable and affordable energy, I hope we don't walk backwards from the important steps that we have been taking over the past couple of years.

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Francisco Lufinha
 - Extreme Kitesurfer

It is critical to address biodiversity at the COP, because without biodiversity we will lose marine and land ecosystems, resulting in the biosphere becoming unbalanced, followed by the extinction of the human race.

What we should be able to expect and what I would like to see, in the context of the sea, as an example, is stricter laws and the enforcement of them, because it is not sustainable to continue with, for example, intensive fishing.

In addition, the creation of programmes should be encouraged for projects to create artificial reefs, or other solutions for bringing the marine ecosystem back into balance.

Public awareness also needs to be raised to enable people to choose products that are sustainable for the planet, and so that companies will offer these products and services.

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Ayala Botto
 - Biologist and Environmental Educator

As a biologist and as a citizen, I worry about climate change, and it upsets me knowing that we will continue to emit CO2 at levels far above the limits to which we have committed.

As a consequence, we have countries living with temperatures far below those that should be expected, while others are suffering from increasingly frequent and intense waves of heat.

We see floods, droughts, food shortages and lack of basic sanitary conditions, which lead to displacements of climate refugees.

Now, we know that when ecosystems operate well, they impact directly on society and for this reason it is urgent that we conserve our natural capital.

This is being affected by the destruction and fragmentation of the habitat, by the introduction of invasive species, and by the over-exploitation of resources, which will undeniably lead to a global extinction of the species that support these ecosystems.

It is time to act. We have to reinvent our food system. We have to drastically reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. And we have to rethink the way in which we travel.

We cannot be held back by our worries. It is now or never.

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Christina Lock
 - Head of Innovation Enablement, EDP

Hi, my name is Christina Lock, and I work at EDP.

Why should COP27 be talking about innovation? Because when we look at climate change, innovation is at the heart of the energy transition.

As Bill Gates once said, and we relate to his comment here at EDP, we always overestimate the change that will occur on the next two years, and underestimate the change that will occur on the next ten.

If we consider the ambitious targets we have for our world until 2050, such as mitigating global warming to under 1,5º Celsius, and looking at how things are going currently, we need innovation to not only speed up, but scale up this process.

And COP 27 is the perfect form to enhance this message.

I would like to see a number of material assurances coming out of this year's COP.

Firstly, innovation should come out as one of the key pillars to enhance the energy transition, and contribute to climate change mitigation.

Secondly, bold commitments should be made to really ensure the compliance for the defined targets.

And finally, innovation can only be as effective as its environment, and so, global investment in technology, and incentives to promote new innovative business models, that can contribute to this world wide effort, are some of the commitments I would like to see coming out of COP27.

Thank you.

EDP's innovation projects

Innovation projects

Floating solar power plant in Alqueva 
Inaugurated on 15 July, this project, which involves gathering solar energy with 12,000 photovoltaic panels, aims to supply more than 30% of the population of this region of Alentejo.
Pulau Project in Singapore 
EDPR strengthened its leadership role in the energy transition area by acquiring 87.4% of the Sunseap group, the largest distributed solar energy operator in Southeast Asia.
POCITYF Project 
A project with the goal of creating and implementing Positive Energy Blocks in several pilot cities, such as Évora, with the purpose of making them cheaper, healthier and more accessible and reliable for their citizens.

A2E fund innovation projects

Agrobusiness and the use of Renewable Energy by Young People in Kenya 
With the goal of impacting on the lives of 10,000 people in this country, this project involves installing 12 solar powered greenhouses and irrigation systems in 7 schools located in arid and semi-arid areas.
VIDA Project 
Indirectly benefiting more than 4,000 inhabitants in a Matatuine community, in Mozambique, the project aims to increase their quality of life through food, security and reforestation, specifically through the installation of solar panels and irrigation systems.
UNICEF Project 
This project involves the installation of a drinking water supply system, resistant to weather conditions, in two schools attended by 2,000 children and neighbouring communities, directly impacting on a total of 6,000 people in the Nsanje district of Malawi.
Off Grid Box Project 
With the installation of 6 OffGridBox units, 400 households, in 6 refugee camps, will each receive a solar powered battery pack and three LED lights, a mobile phone charger and a clean, branded jerry can. This project will directly benefit 12,000 refugees.
Viva con Agua Project 
In partnership with Grino, Viva con Agua involves installing a solar powered desalination system, which will supply drinking water free of charge to 500 students and, at very affordable prices, to 1500 people in the Matatuine region of Mozambique.
Glossário COP

COP Glossary

Get a better understanding of the history of the COP, climate change and the most important steps being taken with this glossary.

Climate change 
Gradual changes in temperature and the climate over long time scales. In the past two centuries, Climate Change has been more accentuated and serious, principally due to human action, causing more droughts, floods, storms and other extreme phenomena.
The capacity of regions or communities to address the effects of climate change, such as floods, periods of drought and other extreme phenomena. Not only to manage these difficulties, but also to exploit beneficial opportunities that may arise.
Paris Agreement 
Presented at the end of COP21, in 2015, the Paris Agreement defined the objective of countries to reduce pollutant emissions so that the average global temperature does not rise more than 2ºC by 2100, in relation to pre-industrial levels, trying to ensure that this increase if it stays for 1.5ºC or less.
Sustainable Development Goals 
An activity, an action or a decision that does not use fossil fuels, does not reduce natural resources and does not increase polluting emissions. And which does not have an impact on nature.
Carbon market 
International systems that allow countries, companies and other entities to pay if they have higher-than-expected emissions, or if they intend to invest in emission reduction projects. Carbon credits are associated with concrete initiatives in this regard, such as the installation of renewables.
Carbon sequestration 
The process of removing the carbon already existing in the atmosphere through natural means, such as trees, or artificially, which could involve building with wood or capturing CO2 and subsequently storing it in the soil, in rocks or under the sea.
Financing is necessary to strengthen the mitigation actions and the levels of adaptation, principally in the countries most affected by climate change. The countries most responsible for the pollution or with the most financial resources commit to helping those that have the most difficulty in this field.
Decisions such as those that come from the COP and other international meetings, which are ratified by the different countries, are based on Collaboration principles. Between nations, between the public and private sector, and between political decisions and their practical results on the ground.
The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the annual meeting (conference) of the countries (parties) that are part of the UNFCCC, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Also part of the COP are the CMA, which brings together the countries that signed the Paris Agreement, and the CMP, for the countries of the Kyoto Protocol.
A position taken by one country or representatives of several countries which, while not being binding, demonstrates the willingness to make a future commitment. A declaration can give rise to a decision later ratified by the COP countries.
Reforestation is the planting of trees after a fire or in a location where they existed in the past. To help with decarbonisation, it is also possible to invest in Afforestation, the creation of woods and forests on land where there were none, but where there will be no negative impact on the population or ecosystem.
Financial mechanisms 
Strategies that facilitate both the granting and obtaining of funds for combating climate change. The financial mechanisms are governed by rules to ensure transparent management and control at the international level.
Fugitive emissions 
The name given to greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, as an indirect consequence of certain activities, or that are not duly accounted for or controlled. These losses frequently happen where the oil and natural gas industries operate.
Green background for the weather 
Aimed specifically at countries that have the most difficulties in terms of Adaptation and Mitigation, in the face of Climate Change, the Green Climate Fund is based in South Korea and seeks to channel funding to specific projects.
Greenhouse gases 
Atmospheric gases that most influence climate change, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. At normal levels, they make the Earth habitable, but human action since the Industrial Revolution has caused a greater concentration of these gases, causing the global temperature to rise.
Hot air 
The term used for the overvaluing of carbon credits by some countries, leading to lower direct investment in decarbonisation. Studies warn that the numbers for emissions reduction connected to the credits purchased and the associated projects are often inflated.
Kyoto Protocol 
Signed in 1997 at COP3, and ratified in the years since by more than 190 countries, the Kyoto Protocol marks the start of the setting of international targets for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in industrialised countries.
Human intervention to limit climate change by reducing carbon emissions, whether by decreasing use of fossil fuels, by strengthening renewables, by energy efficiency measures or by increasing forest and green areas.
International agencies, NGOs, indigenous communities and governments that are not part of the COP can participate in the Conference as Observers, intervene and even organise parallel events. However, they are not able to vote on the decisions taken.
An international agreement connected to a convention – such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, whose signatory countries meet at the COP. A protocol normally introduces detailed commitments and implies that each country signs individually.
Circular economy 
The Circular Economy includes: reduction in consumption through the repair and reuse of a product to extend its useful life; seeking different uses when a product no longer serves its original purpose; and, finally, recycling its components.
Locations or components of the planet that serve as a natural store of greenhouse gases or other polluting elements. Trees, for example, are natural carbon dioxide reservoirs.
River summit 
In 1992, the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro was the first major UN international conference on the environment. It led the heads of state and participating countries to start seriously discussing the impact of pollution on the planet. The Rio Summit laid the foundations for the first COP, in 1995, in Berlin.
A process through which greenhouse gases or other gases are removed from the atmosphere, resulting in a positive balance in relation to those released. Forests and other vegetation are sinks, removing CO2 by photosynthesis, as is phytoplankton in the oceans.
Drag effect 
Positive actions by some countries that have negative results in others. The reduction in the price of fossil fuels due to lower consumption in developed countries, for example, can lead to an increase in their use, with the resulting emissions, in countries that are still emerging.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is the international treaty that governs the actions of signatory countries on the climate. The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the annual meeting of the countries that are party to the Convention, to analyse its progress.
The level of difficulty a system – country, region, community, ecosystem – faces in avoiding the adverse effects of climate change or adapting to them, specifically in terms of changes in their amplitude and the types of extreme phenomena.
Renewable energies 
Energy sources that do not exhaust resources and that do not cause direct pollution, unlike oil or coal. The main Renewable Energies are solar, wind, hydro and geothermal. They are capable of achieving the energy transition and strengthening decarbonisation.
Green electricity 
Electricity produced from renewable sources, such as solar or wind, and which, in addition to the sustainability of its use, guarantees that no polluting emissions are associated with its generation.
Carbon neutrality 
Carbon Neutrality is achieved when there are no polluting emissions associated with an activity, or when carbon is eliminated at one point to compensate for another. Reducing use of fossil fuels and increasing energy efficiency are fundamental steps for Carbon Neutrality.
Biodiversity is the variety of living species, such as plants, animals and other organisms. Biodiversity is not spread equally; there are more species in the tropics and in warmer waters. However, in any ecosystem, climate change – by increasing the average temperature – could have devastating effects.
Energy transition 
Replacing energy sources, whether in industry, transport or homes. Normally the energy transition is associated with investment in electricity, principally renewable production, to the detriment of fossil fuels.

Visiting this page generated about 0,63g CO2, 30% less than other pages on our website.

The internet is responsible for 3.7% of global carbon emissions and annually consumes as much energy as France, nearly 10 times more than Portugal. The average website produces 1.76g of CO2 for each page view, more than 2.1 tonnes if there are 100,000 views per month.*

We want this page to be read many times, by many people, but we also want to reduce its environmental impact. Accordingly, we have removed heavy images, changed the text and colours, and reduced the need for clicks, all factors that influence the weight of a page and its energy expenditure.

This is a webpage of the future, a commitment. We want to reduce our footprint and this also means reducing the CO2 of our digital presence. This is why, until 2027, we want to transit 85% of our digital presence to the Cloud.

We still have a long way to go. But this is our first step. #EDPChangingTomorrowNow

*Source: Website Carbon

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